GIS stands for Geographical Information Systems. It is a mixture of different technological fields that allow you to analyze data in different ways and then display it on a map using lines, polygons and points. Information can be taken from one source and then combined with data from another layer. The combined data can then been analyzed and processed to see new patterns or trends geospatial.
Combining information from multiple layers can yield a wealth of information that is not possible to find in one layer. To find the best location to build a new tower, you could use a density mapping to show the area’s number of mobile phones. The proposed tower location will it receive good reception? You can find out by adding a third layer (elevation map) to determine if the proposed area lies on a hill, or in a valley. As you can see, layer information from multiple sources can be combined and analyzed to uncover hidden information. People might not be able to see this information in other formats, such as in graphs or charts.
GIS can be used to analyse environmental issues and their impacts. You can combine hydrography data and soil data to determine what type of materials are leaching into rivers and streams. This allows you to see the flow of runoff, as well as the effects on the environment. What will the impact be on the fish population? Create a conservation map to find the answer. You might also want to find out the extent of pollution in nearby communities. You can combine the data with the census map to find out who uses the water and for what purpose.